|You can buy or sell bitcoin via an exchange. I use CoinBase but there are many others. |
Most of these will require you to provide this type of information and maybe even a drivers license.
You can also buy Bitcoin or Ethereum via an ETF (Exchange Traded Funds) via a broker like Fidelity.com.
If you buy via a broker/ETF you won't hold the coins, and in some cases, the coins are backed by future contracts.
You can also buy Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies via a DEX (Decentralized Exchange)
Someone could send you Bitcoin to your wallet.